Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are a cancerous growth associated with the neural crest cells. Neural crest cells are embryonic cells migrates and transform into various cell types within the embryo during the formation of the neural tube. The tumors affecting of these cells are small round cells which are neuroectodermal origin, extremely malignant in nature and affect soft tissue organs and bones. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors on the basis of their origin categorized into three major classes such as CNS PNETs affecting central nervous system (CNS), neuroblastoma affecting autonomous nervous system (ANS) and peripheral PNETs derived from tissues other that CNS and ANS. These tumors generally affect the people within the age group of 5 to 25 years. These types of tumors are generally diagnosed by physical examination whereas computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can act as confirmatory tests. The treatment of PNETs depends on various factors such as type of PNET, position and size of tumors, age and general health of patient and nature of tumors.
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are generally grouped in the Ewing family of tumors because of their resembling characters. According to article published by United States based Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the annual incidence in the United States is 2.1 cases per million children for Ewing family of tumors, which is the second most common malignant bone tumor. The cases of PNETs are spread widely across the various regions of the world, and these numbers are growing rapidly. All these facts represent increasing demand of the various treatment options for PNETs globally in near future. The heavy investment in research and development, suitable reimbursement conditions and growing incidences and prevalence may drive the growth of the market. On the other hand high cost involved in treatment and limited awareness may hinder the growth of the overall market.
Currently there are many research projects under study that are focused on developing specific treatment for primitive neuroectodermal tumors. United Stated bases Burzynski Research Institute in collaboration with National Cancer Institute (NCI) studying antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 for the treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumors in children, Japanese giant Daiichi Sankyo Inc. evaluating the usage of exatecan mesylate in treating patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Children\'s Oncology Group studying efficacy of carboplatin administered along with radiation and isotretinoin as a pro-apoptotic agent in PNET patients. Along with this, University of Florida in collaboration with U.S. Department of Defense is developing vaccine immunotherapy for primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors treatment market can be segmented according to different categories such as regional geography and available treatment options. Geographically, this market can be segmented in four regions namely North American, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World, out of all these segments North America region will have highest contribution in terms of value because of high awareness, higher percentage of total income spent on healthcare compared to other economies and appropriate reimbursement circumstances. Followed by this, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World respectively could be major segments of the market. The market can also be segmented according to classes of drugs used for treatment such alkylating agents, platinum-based antineoplastic agents, topoisomerase inhibitor and others.
Currently many established players in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology market catering varied range of products in this market. Out of all companies, Daiichi Sankyo Inc., Novartis, Bristol Myers Squibb and Roche are some of the key players in this market.